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 FinanceEXAM > Net Present Value - -The difference between the market value of a project and its cost. -NPV How much value is created from undertaking an investment? - --The first step is to estimate the expected future cash flows. -The second step is to estimate the required return for projects of this risk level. -The third step is to find the present value of the cash flows and subtact the initial investment. -NPV-Decision Rule - -If the NPV is positive, accept the project. -A positive NPV means that the project is expected to add value to the firm and will therefore increase the wealth of the owners. -Since our goal is to increase owner wealth, NPV is a direct measure of how well this project will meet our goal. -Decision Criteria Test-NPV - --Does the NPV rule account for the time value of money? -Does the NPV rule account for the risk of the cash flow? -Does the NPV rule provide an indication about the increase in value? -Should we consider the NPV rule for our primary decision rule?

 Social SciencesEXAM > absolute location - ANSWER The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface acculturation - ANSWER The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture agglomeration effects - ANSWER The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies agribusiness - ANSWER Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit agricultural density - ANSWER The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land alliance - ANSWER An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade animism - ANSWER The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains antecedent boundary - ANSWER A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed artifact - ANSWER Tangible pieces of material culture assimilation - ANSWER The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture backwash effect - ANSWER The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region bid rent curve - ANSWER The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone biotechnology - ANSWER The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value built environment - ANSWER The material culture of an environment carrying capacity - ANSWER The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis central business district (CBD) - ANSWER The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area central place theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas centrifugal force - ANSWER A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country centripetal force - ANSWER A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country chain migration - ANSWER The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area charter group - ANSWER The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area compact state - ANSWER A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan) colonialism - ANSWER A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes commodity chain - ANSWER A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product concentric zone model - ANSWER The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward confederation - ANSWER A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR congregation - ANSWER An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group consequent boundary - ANSWER A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries conservation agriculture - ANSWER A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment creole - ANSWER A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity crude birth rate (CBR) - ANSWER The number of babies born per 1000 people per year crude death rate (CDR) - ANSWER The number of deaths per 1000 people per year crude density - ANSWER The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density) cultural barrier - ANSWER hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading cultural diffusion - ANSWER The process in which culture is spread from one region to another cultural landscape - ANSWER The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial culture - ANSWER The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique culture region - ANSWER A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics culture hearth - ANSWER A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions culture trait - ANSWER A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language decolonization - ANSWER The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country deindustrialization - ANSWER The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment demographic transition model - ANSWER A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development demography - ANSWER The study of the characteristics of a human population density - ANSWER The number of an item within a unit of area dependency ratio - ANSWER The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65 dependency theory - ANSWER A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core desertification - ANSWER The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion MDCs - ANSWER Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development devolution - ANSWER The breakdown of central authority in a country distance decay - ANSWER The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away distribution - ANSWER The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern domino theory - ANSWER The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also doubling time - ANSWER The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same dialect - ANSWER A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken ecumene - ANSWER The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live edge city - ANSWER A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents elongated state - ANSWER A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile enclave - ANSWER A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part environmental determinism - ANSWER The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment ethnic enclave - ANSWER A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity ethnic island - ANSWER A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population ethnic religion - ANSWER A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example) ethnocentrism - ANSWER The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others exclave - ANSWER An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - ANSWER An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation export-processing zones (EPZs) - ANSWER Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business federal state - ANSWER A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power First Agricultural Revolution - ANSWER The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution) fixed cost - ANSWER The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable folk culture - ANSWER A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream Fordism - ANSWER The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing formal region - ANSWER A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute fragmented state - ANSWER A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country gateway city - ANSWER A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power gentrification - ANSWER The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families gerrymandering - ANSWER The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party ghetto - ANSWER The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination globalization - ANSWER The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes GMO (genetically modified organisms) - ANSWER An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version gravity model - ANSWER A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places Green Revolution - ANSWER The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger GDP - ANSWER The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year gross national product (GNP) - ANSWER The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad heartland-rimland theory - ANSWER Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland) hierarchial diffusion - ANSWER The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society human capital theory of migration - ANSWER The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs imperialism - ANSWER The use of military threat, cultural domination, and economic sanctions to gain control of a country and its resources Industrial Revolution - ANSWER The movement from homebased cottage industries to factory industries with several workers under one roof that the use of machines facilitates in England in the late 1700s intensive subsistence agriculture - ANSWER A form of agriculture heavily depends on heavy inputs of fertilized and human labor on a small piece of land for substantial crop yield internally displaced person - ANSWER A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary intervening opportunity - ANSWER The idea that migrants will choose a location closer rather than farther if all other factors are roughly the same irredentism - ANSWER The destabilizing situation that arises when an ethnic group supports and seeks to unite with its ethnic population in another country language family - ANSWER A group of languages that are related and derived from a single, earlier language latitude - ANSWER The degrees north or south from the equator for a location on the surface of the Earth. Measured in parallels. least cost theory - ANSWER A theory, developed by Alfred Weber, that states that three main expenses-labor, transportation, and agglomeration-must be minimized when locating an industry LDCs - ANSWER Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth lingua franca - ANSWER A language that is not part of the culture of the country but is one that is informally agreed upon as the language of business and trade locational interdependence theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests that competitors in their effort to maximize sales, will try and limit each other's territory by locating close to each other in the middle of their combined customer base longitude - ANSWER The distance east or west from the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds using lines of identical longitude, called meridians long-lots system of land survey - ANSWER A land survey method used by French and Spanish charter groups in North America in which long lots of land extended outward from river frontage material culture - ANSWER The artifacts (tangible things) of a culture such as tools, weapons, and furniture mediterranean agriculture - ANSWER A form of specialized agriculture in which crops grown in a Mediterranean climate of warm year-round temperatures and sunny summers (grapes, olives, figs, dates, citrus fruits, etc.) are grown megacity - ANSWER A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations megalopolis - ANSWER A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area metes-and-bounds land survey system - ANSWER A land survey system used in North America where natural boundaries such as rivers, trees, and large rocks were used to mark land boundaries

absolute location - ANSWER The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface acculturation - ANSWER The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture agglomeration effects - ANSWER The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies agribusiness - ANSWER Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit agricultural density - ANSWER The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land alliance - ANSWER An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade animism - ANSWER The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains antecedent boundary - ANSWER A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed artifact - ANSWER Tangible pieces of material culture assimilation - ANSWER The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture backwash effect - ANSWER The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region bid rent curve - ANSWER The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone biotechnology - ANSWER The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value built environment - ANSWER The material culture of an environment carrying capacity - ANSWER The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis central business district (CBD) - ANSWER The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area central place theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas centrifugal force - ANSWER A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country centripetal force - ANSWER A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country chain migration - ANSWER The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area charter group - ANSWER The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area compact state - ANSWER A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan) colonialism - ANSWER A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes commodity chain - ANSWER A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product concentric zone model - ANSWER The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward confederation - ANSWER A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR congregation - ANSWER An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group consequent boundary - ANSWER A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries conservation agriculture - ANSWER A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment creole - ANSWER A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity crude birth rate (CBR) - ANSWER The number of babies born per 1000 people per year crude death rate (CDR) - ANSWER The number of deaths per 1000 people per year crude density - ANSWER The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density) cultural barrier - ANSWER hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading cultural diffusion - ANSWER The process in which culture is spread from one region to another cultural landscape - ANSWER The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial culture - ANSWER The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique culture region - ANSWER A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics culture hearth - ANSWER A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions culture trait - ANSWER A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language decolonization - ANSWER The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country deindustrialization - ANSWER The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment demographic transition model - ANSWER A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development demography - ANSWER The study of the characteristics of a human population density - ANSWER The number of an item within a unit of area dependency ratio - ANSWER The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65 dependency theory - ANSWER A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core desertification - ANSWER The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion MDCs - ANSWER Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development devolution - ANSWER The breakdown of central authority in a country distance decay - ANSWER The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away distribution - ANSWER The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern domino theory - ANSWER The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also doubling time - ANSWER The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same dialect - ANSWER A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken ecumene - ANSWER The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live edge city - ANSWER A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents elongated state - ANSWER A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile enclave - ANSWER A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part environmental determinism - ANSWER The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment ethnic enclave - ANSWER A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity ethnic island - ANSWER A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population ethnic religion - ANSWER A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example) ethnocentrism - ANSWER The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others exclave - ANSWER An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - ANSWER An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation export-processing zones (EPZs) - ANSWER Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business federal state - ANSWER A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power First Agricultural Revolution - ANSWER The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution) fixed cost - ANSWER The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable folk culture - ANSWER A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream Fordism - ANSWER The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing formal region - ANSWER A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute fragmented state - ANSWER A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country gateway city - ANSWER A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power gentrification - ANSWER The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families gerrymandering - ANSWER The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party ghetto - ANSWER The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination globalization - ANSWER The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes GMO (genetically modified organisms) - ANSWER An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version gravity model - ANSWER A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places Green Revolution - ANSWER The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger GDP - ANSWER The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year gross national product (GNP) - ANSWER The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad heartland-rimland theory - ANSWER Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland) hierarchial diffusion - ANSWER The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society human capital theory of migration - ANSWER The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs imperialism - ANSWER The use of military threat, cultural domination, and economic sanctions to gain control of a country and its resources Industrial Revolution - ANSWER The movement from homebased cottage industries to factory industries with several workers under one roof that the use of machines facilitates in England in the late 1700s intensive subsistence agriculture - ANSWER A form of agriculture heavily depends on heavy inputs of fertilized and human labor on a small piece of land for substantial crop yield internally displaced person - ANSWER A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary intervening opportunity - ANSWER The idea that migrants will choose a location closer rather than farther if all other factors are roughly the same irredentism - ANSWER The destabilizing situation that arises when an ethnic group supports and seeks to unite with its ethnic population in another country language family - ANSWER A group of languages that are related and derived from a single, earlier language latitude - ANSWER The degrees north or south from the equator for a location on the surface of the Earth. Measured in parallels. least cost theory - ANSWER A theory, developed by Alfred Weber, that states that three main expenses-labor, transportation, and agglomeration-must be minimized when locating an industry LDCs - ANSWER Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth lingua franca - ANSWER A language that is not part of the culture of the country but is one that is informally agreed upon as the language of business and trade locational interdependence theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests that competitors in their effort to maximize sales, will try and limit each other's territory by locating close to each other in the middle of their combined customer base longitude - ANSWER The distance east or west from the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds using lines of identical longitude, called meridians long-lots system of land survey - ANSWER A land survey method used by French and Spanish charter groups in North America in which long lots of land extended outward from river frontage material culture - ANSWER The artifacts (tangible things) of a culture such as tools, weapons, and furniture mediterranean agriculture - ANSWER A form of specialized agriculture in which crops grown in a Mediterranean climate of warm year-round temperatures and sunny summers (grapes, olives, figs, dates, citrus fruits, etc.) are grown megacity - ANSWER A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations megalopolis - ANSWER A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area metes-and-bounds land survey system - ANSWER A land survey system used in North America where natural boundaries such as rivers, trees, and large rocks were used to mark land boundaries

absolute location - ANSWER The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface acculturation - ANSWER The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture aggl...

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